14 points of Woodrow Wilson – Infotechstudy
Woodrow Wilson in League of Nations
The President of USA, president Woodrow Wilson, proposed an international body that would monitor and arbitrate differences between nations and not allow the situation to escalate into another war. He put forward 14 points, which formed the basis of the principles of the League of the Nations. Unfortunately, the League of Nations did not encourage the defeated nations to have a voice which meant it was flawed from the outset.
14 points of Woodrow Wilson
On 8th January, 1918, US President Woodrow Wilson gave the famous ’14 points programmer’ to establish would peace.
(1) Open Diplomacy –
Open covenant of peace replace the private international understandings. Peace understanding are made public.
(2) Freedom of the Seas –
Absolute freedom of navigation upon the seas, outside territorial waters was allowed except in cases where the seas are secured international covenants.
(3) Removal of Economic barriers –
The removal of all economic barriers and the establishment of an equality of trade conditions among all the nations consenting to the peace and associating themselves for its maintenance.
(4) Mutual Disarmament –
Adequate measures were initiated to promote disarmament and to contain arms race.
(5) Political Freedom in Colonies for Self Determination –
A free open minded and absolutely impartial adjustment of all colonial claims is to based on the strict observance of the principle that is determining all such questions of sovereignty.
(6) Conquered Territories in Russia –
The evacuation of all Russian territories; to remove German troops from Russian Territory and to involve her into League of Nations.
(7) Preservation of Belgium Sovereignty –
To remove German troops from Belgium and to restore its territories, without any attempt to limit the sovereignty which she enjoys in commonality with all other free nations.
(8) Restoration of French Territory –
All French territories should be freed and the invaded portions must be restored.
Alsace -Lorraine (French territory lost to Prussia) must be returned to France.
(9) Redrawing of Italian Frontiers –
A readjustment of the frontiers of Italy should be effected along the clearly recognisable lines of nationality.
(10) Division of Austria-Hungary –
The people of Austria-Hungary must be given opportunity to establish their autonomous government.
(11) Redrawing of Balkan Boundaries –
Romania, Serbia and Montenegro should be evacuated; occupied territories must be restored. Political and economic independence and territories integrity of Balkan state should be secured by international guarantees.
(12) Limitations of Turkey –
The Turkish portion of the present Ottoman Empire should be assured a secure sovereignty, but the other nationalities which are now under Turkish rule should be assured an undoubted security of life.
(13) Establishment of an Independent Poland –
An independent Polish state should be erected. It should be assured a free and secure access to the sea.
(14) proposal for an Associate of Nations –
A general association of nations must be formed under specific covenant for the purpose of affording mutual guarantees for political independence and territorial integrity to great and small states alike.