Industrial Revolution – Infotechstudy
The term ‘Industrial Revolution’ stands for those developments and invention which revolutionised the technique and organisation of production in the later half of 18th century.
The Industrial Revolution replaced the previous domestic system of production
by the new factory system. In place of manual and animal power, new machines and steam power were used for producing things. This revolution replaced cottage industries by factories, hand labour by machine work and craftsman and artists by capitalists and factory owners.
Industrial Revolution was started in England and soon spread ot other part of world. It not only increased the production commodities, but also increased the demand raw material and cheap labour. This resulted in the search for new markets outside Europe and race of colonialism started. Indian, South Africa many countries of Asia come under the cultures and colonialism and imperialism.
Factore Responsible For Industrial Revolution
Some of the important factors which led to the Industrial Revolution in England and which were conspicuously absent in other European nations, were as follows :
● The standard of living of the British and their purchasing power was higher than those of any other countries. Hence, demand for various commodities increased shifting focus on increasing production.
● By the end of 18th century, England had established an extensive colonial empire. In the race for colonisation, France and other states lagged behind. Colonies provided raw materials and new markets ro England.
● England enjoyed monopoly over sea -trading. It had the best ports situated on the key commercial routes.
● Unlike France and other countries, serfdom and class system had already been abolished in England. It had an atmosphere conducive to the promotion on trade and commerce.
● The earliest factories in England came up by the 1730s. But the number of factories multiplied in the late 18th century. Cotton textile was the main industry at that time. Its production boomed in the late 19th century.
● The most dynamic industries industries in Britain were cotton and mentals. Growing at a rapid pace, cotton was the leading sector in the first phase of indusrtrialisation upto the 1840s. By 1840s the demand for iron steel increased rapidly with the expansion of railways.
● England possessed sufficient capital to invest in big factories. The loot carried off form India served as a catalyst to Industrial Revolution in England.
● In the beginning of the 18th century, banks had been opened in England, which provided the British industrialists the facility of acquiring loans and depositing their capital.
● The British politics was basically based on trade. England did not waste its energy in unnecessary wars. Therefore, it made commendable progress in respect of trade and industries.
● The policy of the British Government was conducive to trade and industries. Various local taxes and octroi (a type of tax) were levied in other countries of Europe, but England did not put such barriers.
● Because of the policy of protectionism, trade and industries flourished in England.
● Most of the early, inventions were made in Britain because there was no political or religious restraint on the scientists. The English Royal society encouraged new inventions by rewarding inventors.
Impact of Industrial Revolution on European Nation
Germany, France, Russia, etc. are the countries who were influnced by industrial Revolution. Impact of Industrial Revolution on these were as follow :
● Large scale use of machinery became popular for the first time in England.
● Agriculture industries, textile industries, transportation etc. were started in England only.
● During the reign of Louis Philip (France) Industrial Revolution reached in apex in France.
● Movement of workers was organised in France during Industrial Revolution.
● Print industry developed in Germany during this period.
● In Italy, development of transportation resulted in the development industries on large scale.
● After 1917 Revolution in Russia, industrial development took place at rapid pace. As result of this, Russia witnessed rapid development of transport and communication, trade and commerce.
Effects of Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution brought a series of changes in the method of manufacture, production and distribution and drastically affected the economic, political, social life of the people.
☆ Economic Impacts
Some economic impacts of Industrial Revolution are as follow :
● A variety of articles and goods began to be manufactured in large quantities in big factories.
● Advancements were made in scientific and technological sector.
● It promoted international economic dependence like, the textile industries of Britain were dependent on the supply of raw cotton from USA and India.
● With the Industrial Revolution, industrial capitalism was born.
☆ political Imacts
Some political impact Industrial Revolution are as follow :
● It promoted the policy of Laissez Faire. The industrial capitalist class did not tolerate much of the state’s interference
economic affairs, this promoted Laissez Faire.
● As a result of the Industrial Revolution , the military superiority of a country dependent upon the extent of the industrialisation in that country.
● More and more new countries became the victim of colonaisation because of increasing demand for raw material and industrialisation.
☆ Social Imacts
Some social impacts of Industrial revolution are as follow :
● The period saw the shift from to feudal capitalist society. The centre of economic activity shifted to the cities. Agriculture activites became less important and people began ot shift towards industries.
● This also promoted unequal distribution of wealth. Few people accumulated maximum wealth.
● It created the problem of pollution and rapid depletion of non-renewable environmental resources. There was development efficient of means of transport and communication.