Principles of Foreign Policy of India


 Foreign Policy of India

Foreign policy is that policy on which political, economic and social relations of a country develops with other countries. National interest is the fundamental principle of foreign policy. The first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru played vital role in formulating India’s foreign policy. Nehru is called the chief architect of India’s foreign policy.

Principle of Foreign Policy of India

India foreign Policy is an independent policy of a sovereign nation, which was formulated after independence under the guidance of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and it is the basis of India’s Foreign Policy even today.

Its main features are as follows

(i) Policy of Non-Alignment

There was an era of Cold War after the Second World War, in which two power blocs emerged. First group was under USA and second group was under USSR. In this situation, India decided not to join any power blocs and military groupings after independence. This policy is supreme in India’s Foreign Policy. This policy is strong opponent of colonialism and imperialism. For the development of country to co-operate with every nation rather to join any power group is the fundamental base of this policy. 

(ii) Belief in Panchsheel

India’s Foreign Policy has a deep faith in the principles of Panchsheel. The principles of Panchsheel are motivated by Buddhism. This policy was declared in 1954 as a result of friendly agreement between India and China. At Bandung Conference in 1955, 29 countries of third world recognised these principles.

There are five principles of Panchsheel. These includes

(a) To respect sovereignty and integrity of every nation
(b) Not to attack on each other’s territory
(c) Not to interfere in each other’s internal affairs
(d) To work for mutual benefit and understanding
(e) Peaceful co-existence

The philosophy behind this principle is that if superpowers will determine the destiny of backward nations, then no country could develop. Thus, every nation should get opportunity to develop its economy in its own way.

India foreign policy

(iii) Belief in Friendly Relations with all Nations

The mentor of India’s Foreign Policy Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru said in this context that the fundamental objective of India’s Foreign Policy is to establish friendly relations with all the nations. India has followed this principle since independence. Because of this India wants to maintain political, economic, social and cultural relations not only with neighbouring nations, but with all the nations of world.

(iv) Opposition to Colonialism and Imperialism

India has a long experience of imperialism and colonialism and due to this reason, foreign policy of independent India has strongly criticised these evils. India considers these policies dangerous to the world peace. In the word of KM Panikkar, “The policy of India has always remained committed to raise voice for independence of colonies, because it is strong belief of India that colonialism and imperialism have always remained the cause of modern wars”.

(v) Opposition to Racist Policy

India is against the policies of racism and apartheid. Due to this, India supported Apartheid movement in South Africa under the leadership of Nelson Mandela and opposed the policies of the white governments upto 1994.

(vi) Faith in World Peace and United Nations


Indian foreign policy supports peaceful solution to international issues and disputes, that is why India is supporter of United Nations and other international organisations. In this context, Nehru’s view is significant that is “We cannot imagine modern world without United Nations”.


On the basis of. above principles, we can say that India’s Foreign Policy has always supported independence, equality, universal brotherhood, world peace and co-existence which are significant according to the needs of contemporary world.

What is Panchsheel ?

This principle was first mentioned in Sino-India Treaty of 1954, which is known with the name of Panchsheel Agreement. This agreement was signed by Indian Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru and Chinese Premier Zhou-Enlai.

The propounder of Panchsheel principle was Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Presently, it is one of the main base of India’s foreign policy. Many nations of the world have shown their devotion towards it.

India foreign policy is Non-alignment Explain

India relationship with neighbouring countries

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