Renaissance||Causes of Rising and Effect||All notes
The term Renaissance is a French word which means revival or rebirth. It began
as a movement to revisit the old scriptures and learn about ancient Greek
and Roman cultures, but it soon turned into a movement of new ideas in art, religion, literature, philosophy science and polities.
It is period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries. It is a movement that stressed the ideas of the classical world, ended the medieval era and introduced the start of the modern age in Europe .
‘Renaissance’ as a philosophy emerged in the city of Florence (Italy). The first noteable creation in the direction of Renaissance was Dante’s Divine Comedy In the book, he describes about the heaven, hell and the other world. Another pioneer of Renaissance was Francesco Petrarch.
Petrarch is often cosidered the founder of humanism. Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellactual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, but it is best known for its artistic development and contribution of famous artists like Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo.
Causes for the Rise of Renaissance
There are many causes which were responsible for the emergence of renaissance in Europe. These are follows.
■ Fall of Constantinople
constantinople the great centre of learning . In AD 1453,
Muhammed ll of Ottoman Empire occupied constantinople and devastated it. Out of the fear, Greek intellectuals left Constantinople and entered into the different cities of Italy like Milan, Naples, Sicily, Rome etc. They taught mathematics, history, geography, philosophy, astronomy, medician etc. to the people of Italy.
■ Invention of Printing Machine:
Around AD 1450, printing machine was introduced by John Gutenberg of Germany. Soon, these machines were established in Italy, France, Belgium and other European countries. It made knowledge and information accessible to common people .
■ Encouragement of Art and Literature
Many kings, nobles and merchants encouraged new literture and art. Lorenzo-de-Medici (the ruler of Florance) invited many artists to his court. The progressive idea of the rulers galvanised renaissance.
■ Religious Revolution:
During that period, Church became attached to state. It become more power hungry and its value declined and people started questioning its sanctity.
■ Development of New Thoughts:
The people who spread new thoughts paved the way for renaissance. Religious
book and scriptures were questioned and emphasis was given to rationality.
Effects of Renaissance
The Renaissance gave a great impetus of art, architecture learning and literature which reached tremendous heights.
The effects of the renaissance were far reaching. These are as follows
The birth of renaissance literature took place in Italy. Some important work during this time includes Thomas Moore’s ‘ Utopia’, Milton’s ‘Paradise Lost’ and ‘ Paradise Regained’, William Shakespeare’s ‘Macbeth’ etc.
These was bold departure from medieval tradition was nowhere more clearly revealed than in the art of renaissance period. Earlier, the art was influenced by Christianity, but after renaissance it became more free and secular.
The architecture of Italy was largely influenced by renaissance. Florence (city of Itay) became the nerve centre of art-world. The builders of this time constructed many churches, palaces and massive building following the style and pattern of ancient Greece and Rome.
Sculpture underwent a significant change during the renaissance period. The famous sculptor of Italy during this was Lorenzo Ghiberti, who carved the bronze doors of the church at Florence.
The painters of Italy during renaissance brought excellence and became world famous. The famous painters of that time were Leonardo-da-Vinci, Michealangelo etc.
■ Developments in Other Fields:
These was development of science, astronomy, geography, medicine, Francis Bacon emerged as the ‘Father of Modern Science’. Copernicus gave revolutionary theory of astronomy (that Sun in static).
These were many Geographical discoveries (like finding route to India, and Africa via Cape of Good Hope) that took place during the time of renaissance.
■ Religious Reforms:
A reform process was intiated by the Catholic Church in response to the rising popularity of the protestant churches. Religious was began among the people of both the sects (Catholics and protestants). They wanted to reform churches because these churches became power hungry and corrupt.
■ Political Reforms:
The powers of the monarchy was strengthened . People in Europe were tired of feudul anarchy. They looked up to the monarchy to ensure peace and order , political stability and economic prosperity.
■ Rise of Humanism:
The Renaissance led to the creation of humanism and gave a stimulus to the growth of vernacular literature . As a result, the Italian, French, German, Spanish, and English language blossomed at the period.
Feature of Renaissance
Some important features of renaissance are as follow :
●These was revival of classical thought and rejection of barbarism and corrupt
● There was adoption of the principal of humanism, which made sweeping changes in the idea about the real world.
● The commercial revolution began as feudalism died and different areas of the European countries developed into important urban commercial centres.
● Literature in Greek and Latin languages as well in local languages assumed importance.