Revolutionaries movement in India | Organisation
Revolutionaries played an important role in the Indian freedom struggle, They were also called ‘militant nationalists’. Sudden withdrawal of Non-Cooperation Movement left many nationalist disillusioned.
They started questioning the basic strategy of nationalist leaders. They lost their faith on the moderate leaders and thus moved towards adopting violent methods in order to throw away the British rule from India.
What were the reason of the rise of revolutionary movement?
• The root explanation for the increase of militant nationalism was British suppression and humiliation of Indians. There was widespread unemployment, high rates of land revenue, destruction of traditional industries, deterioration of agriculture and discrimination. This created anger and frustration among the nationalists.
• Absence of effective leadership and political movement.
• Russia’s defeat at the hands of Japan inspired the Indians. Because, this was a major victory by an Asian power against the while Europeans.
• The revolutionaries were inspired by the armed revolutions of Italy, France, Germany. Russia, etc.
Important Revolutionary Organisations
It was one of the prominent revolutionary organisation of Bengal. It was founded by Barrister Pramathanath Mitra, In 1902. Its members Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki threw bomb at carraige which they believed to be carrying Kingsford (judge of Muzaffarpur) But unfortunately, they killed sorne other British officials Khudiram Bose was arrested and hanged on 11th August, 1908. This organisation published a periodical named Jugantar, which openly preached armed rebellion.
Hindustan Republican Association
It was established in 1924 at Kanpur, by Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Praful Ganguly and Narendra Mohan Sen. Its objective was to establish a ‘Federal Republic of United States of India’ through an organised and armed revolution.
Its main branches were established at Bengal. Bihar, Delhi, Punjab. Madras and others.
Abhinav Bharat Society
It was founded by VD Savarkar in Pune (Maharashtra) in 1904. It was initially founded as Mitra Mela when VD Savarkar was still a student at Fergusson College (Pune) in 1899. The society was disbanded in 1952.
Important Revolutionary Events
Delhi Conspiracy Case (1912)
On 23 December. 1912, a bomb was throwing at the Viceroy Lord Hardinge, when his procession was moving from Chandni Chowk. British officials considered Rash Behan Bose as the main culprit behind this. but he escaped to London. Other revolutionaries such as Awadh Bihari. Amir Chand, Lal Mukund and Basant Kumar were arrested and trialed under ‘Delhi Conspiracy case’.
Kanpur Conspiracy Case (1924)
Some communist leaders like AS Dange, Shaukat Usmani, Nalini Sen Gupta, Muzaffar Ahmed were caught by the British Government and were trialed for conspiring against the government The charge on them was lo deprive the king emperor of his sovereignty of Britisher India, by whole separation of India from imperialistic Britain by a violent revolution.
3. Saunders Killing
Saunders who ordered to charge lathis on Lala Lajpat Rai during protest of Simon Commission, was killed on 30th October, 1928, by Bhagat Singh, Chandra Shekhar Azad and Rajguru. This was the first revolutionary activity of Hindustan Socialist Republican Association.
Central Assembly Bomb Case
In 1929, Bhagat Singh and BK Dutt threw a bomb at Delhi Central Legislative Assembly to made deaf government hear their plea The aim behind the bombing was not to cause harm but to protest against the passing of two repressive bills namely the Public Safety Bill and the Trade Dispute Bill.
Lahore Conspiracy Case
As a result of bombing the Central Legislative Assembly, Bhagat Singh, BK Dutt and their companions were taken into custody. All the prisoners were brutally treated in jail. Jatin Das (a political prisoner) died in all after 64 days of hunger strike. Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdeiv were sentenced to death, and were hanged on 23rd March. 1931.
In 1931, Chandra Shekhar Azad was encountered by the police officials at Alfred Park, Allahabad (which is now known as Chandra Shekhar Azad Park). But he did not surrendered to the and shot himself dead.