Russian revolution Causes| Outcome | Effects | Events – infotechstudy
The Bolshevik Revolution or the Russian Revolution is a landmark event of the 20th century. The revolution ended the despotic monarchical rules of the Tsar and established socialist democracy. It also puts an end to the powers of aristocrats, capitalists and landlords in social,economic and agricultural fields . This revolution laid foundation of a society in Russia which was based on dominance of the proletariat and peasants.
The revolutionaries adopted the socialist ideologies of karl Marx. It gave a concrete shape to the ideology of socialism which also spread in other parts of the world.
Tsarism was established in AD 1325 by Ivan IV in Russia. Peter the Great ( AD1682-1725 ) started the modern period in Russia and Catherine II (AD 1762-1796 ) transformed Russia as a powerful nation in Europe. Alexander II ( AD 1855-1881 ) took many reform initiatives in Russia. In Russian history, he is known as ‘Saviour Tasr’ Nicolas II was the last Tsar ruler of Russia, who was shot dead by revolutionaries in AD 1917. Thus, with the death of Nicolas II Tsarism was ended.
Conditions of Russian before Revolution
Before the revolution, the Russian society was divided into three classes. The upper class consists of members of Tsar, higher feudals and rich people who spent a luxurious life. Middle class composed or writers, thinkers, small traders, philosophers etc. Third class composed of peasants,serfs ( slaves) and labourers etc. They shared a large proportion of population whose conditions were critical. Peasants had no rights on land.
Causes of Russian Revolution
Following were the causes of Russian Revolution
(i) Influence of Communist Ideology
The communist ideology began with the industrial development. Many of the labourers stated to adopted communist ideologies and to join communist parties to make their future prosperous. Great philosopher Fisher has written in this context that “the spread of this communist ideology created deep dissatisfaction and hatred among country’s labourers against Tsar, due to which people started to give their support to revolutionaries to end rule of the Tsar”.
(ii) Influence of Professional Revolution
Many large industries had established in Russia after the professional revolution. A large number of labourers migrated from rural areas to urban areas to work in factories. The modern atmosphere upgraded their knowledge and they became politically aware, they started to form club/organisation gradually. Many leaders came to address there clubs and spread the leaders came to address these clubs and spread the principles of socialism. Thus, labourers also started to participate in revolutions.
(iii) Rise of Political Awareness
As a result of spread of socialist ideas, the Russian Socialist Democratic Party was established in AD 1883. This party split in two parts in 1930- Mensheik and Bolshevik.
The main leader of Mensheik was Julius Martov Mensheik generally tented to be more moderate and more positive towards the liberal opposition and peasant-based Socialist Revolutionary Party. While Bolsheviks wanted to established a proletariat government by a bloody revolutionary process. The Revolution of 1905 prepared the ground for the 1917 Revolution. A great mob assembled peacefully on 22nd January, 1905, in Moscow with their demand, but the army stared firing on them on the order of Tsar. Though this revolution was suppressed temporarily, but it emerged as a great revolution in 1917.
(iv) Contribution of Thinkers
The contemporary Russian thinkers were influenced by many ongoing changes in Europe. Thinkers like Tolstoy, Turgenev, Dostoevsky influenced people with their ideas.
(V) Defeat of Russia by Japan
In 1904-05, a war was fought between Russia and Japan. Russia faced a defeat in the hands of a small country like Japan. It caused anguish among Russian people against Tsar.
(vi) Dissatisfaction among Labourers
There was great dissatisfaction among labourers of various industries, because their organisation were unable to function freely due to suppressive policies of the function freely due to suppressive policies of the government. Thu, they became revolutionary.
(vii) Inability and Absolutism of Tsar Nicolas II
The last Tsar of Russian was Nicolas II.Both Nicolas II and his wife Alix led a luxurious life. They worked on the advice of appeasers. They gave wrong advices to the Tsar which caused dissatisfaction among the people.
(viii) Dominance of Corruption
When Russian army was sent to the war then the traders and capitalists took advantage of this opportunity and exploited people. The officer of the Tsar were also corrupt. The army was likewise. This was the reason that both the army and government could not cursh the revolution.
(ix) Heavy Loss During the War
Due to inability and lack of planning of Russian army commanders, approximately 6 lakhs. Russian soldiers were killed and 20 lakhs were arrested during the First World War, 1914. It caused great dissatisfaction among peasants and labourers because most of the soldiers came from this class.
There was great famine in Russia during 1916-17. Many people starved and epidemic like situation emerged. Despite this situation, the capitalists continued to exploit people which culminated the dissatisfaction and agitation of the Russian people.
What is Bloody Sunday
There was absolute monarchical rule in Russia. The officer and military of emperor Tsar used to do torture and exploitation on the Russian people. Russia was defeated by even a small country like Japan 1904-05. In these circumstances, the agitated people of Russia assembled with their demands at the fort in St Petersberg on 22nd January 1905.
The Tsar did not pay attention to their demands army on the order of Tsar fired on the people. This event happen on Sunday. Thus, this event is known as ‘Bloody Sunday’ in the history of Russia. Through this revolution was crushed by the Tsar, but ultimately this event emerged as a great revolution in February , 1917.
What is February Revolution
Although, this revolution was suppressed, but it emerged as a great revolution on 7th March, 1917 on the roads of Petrograd. It is also called as February Revolution because the Russian calendar was 8 days behind the world’s calendar. In the revolution,women and labourers also participated on a large scale.
On 15th March, 1917,the Tsarist Government of Romanov dynasty ended and a new government was formed under the leadership of Kerensky. But this government remained unsuccessful to fulfill the aspirations of the people.
What is October Revolution
Hence,the revolution restarted on 7th November, 1917,which is called October Revolution, it is also called the Bolshevik Revolution.
October Revolution happened under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin. Lenin and the Bolshevik had opposed the First World War since 1914. He left that it was time for the Soviets to take over power. Lenin united supporters from army, Soviet and factories for socialist seizure on 16th October, 1917.
As the uprising began on 24th October, 1917,Prime Minister Kerenskii left the town to summon troops in fear. There was heavy fighting between pro-government troops and therefore the Bolsheviks. By December 1917, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow- Petrograd area. The Bolsheviks nationalised the banks and industries in November 1917. They declared land as a social property and allowed peasants to seize land of nobles, the church and therefore the Tsar. The Bolshevik party was renamed because the Russian Communist Party ( Bolshevik).
Prominent Political Groups
The Menshevik formed the minority of the Socialist Democratic Party once they split in 1903. The Menshevik wanted to make their movement less elitist than the Bolsheviks within the assumption that it’d attract the support of the uneducated workers and peasants. This party was led by Julins Martov.
Bolshevik This was a political party of Russia composed of industrial labourers. This party had majority support from industrial labourers. This party had majority support from industrial labourers, thus, it is called Bolshevik ( Majority) group.
This group believed in revolutionary ideas. They believed that a contry where people and Parliament has no democratic rights, peaceful changes cannot be possible there. This party made 1917 Revolution successful under leadership of Lenin.
Objectives of Revolutionaries
Some objectives of revolutionaries are given as under
• On the basis of revolutionary democratic arrangements, they wanted to from a government favourable for peasants and labourers.
• Revolutionaries were determined to give land rights to the peasants.
• Revolutionaries wanted to end economic inequalities.
• Revolutionaries wanted to end absolute monarchy.
Outcomes of the Russian Revolution
(1) End of Absolute Tsar Monarchy
As a result of Russia Revolution, the Tsarist monarchy from Russia ended. Nicolas ll and his family members were murdered. In this way, the absolute and oppressive, Tsar rule ended in Russia.
(2) Emergence of First Socialist State
As a result of the Russian Revolution, new Union of Soviet Socialist Republic emerged. This new government adopted the principles of Karl Marx.
The objective of this new government was “to take work from every individual according to his capability and to give remuneration according to his work.” With this objective, private ownership was abolished on the sources of productions.
(3) End of Social Inequality
As a result of this revolution, a new
socio-economic set-up was developed. Private ownership and individual profit was abolished. By ending social inequality, it was made the duty of state to give work to every individual.
(4) Economic planning
As an outcome of the revolution, it was the main work of the government to make a consolidate economic plan.
(5) Industrial Development
After this revolution, industries rapidly developed in Russia. The management of factories came in the hands of Workers. Due to industrial development, Russia attained the level of self-dependency in the field of economy.
(6) Development in the field of Education and culture.
After the revolution, Lenin created free education thought in Russia. Children learned communist ideas, but they were still education about the world.
(7) Emergence as a Powerful Nation
After the revolution, many development took place in Russia. The country was restructured socially and economically. In a short span of time, Russia emerged as a powerful nation.
After the success of the Russian Revolution, communist ideologies rapidly spread in the world. After this revolution, Russia emerged as a power national which always posed challenges to the capitalist ideology of America.
Who was Lenin
Lenin deeply studied the socialism and became preacher of Marx’s Principles in AD 1895. He founded Bolshevik, party in 1903. He firmly believed that unless the feudalism, the land slavery and the despotic Tsar rule was totally destroyed, there could not be any progress of the Russian people. Lenin terminated capitalism in the filed of business and industries were nationalised.
He deprived big landlords of their land and equally distributed the land. The government sponsored and ran various industries. He started to give accommodation, food,clothes and other facilities instead of wages in money to the workers. Lenin announced a New Economic Policy ( NEP ) which consisted of both privatisation and nationalisation to some extent.