Social and Religious Reform movement in India class 10th
In India, such a new consciousness emerged in 19th century, which greatly influenced the social, religious, economic and political, which greatly influenced the social, religious, economic and political life of the country. New awaking is known by the name of Renaissance. So the 19th century is called the period of Indian Renaissance.
Brahmo Samaj was founded by Raja Ram Mohan Roy in 1882. He is known as ‘father of Indian Renaissance.’ The ‘Percepts of Jesus’ and ‘The Guide to Peace and Happiness’ was his two main Raja compositions.
Rammohan roy worked to ended sati pratha in 1829 he opposed the religious traditions, idol worships and social evils and custom like child marriage, sati pratha, caste system, promoted inter-cultural marriages. He established a weekly newspaper named Sambad Kaumudi (Bengali). The Principles of Brahmo Samaj, emphasised on the unity of God and denounced idolatory.
Arya Samaj was founded by Swami Dayananda Saraswati at (Mumbai) in 1875. The original name of Dayananda Saraswati was Mulshankar, he was born in 1824 at Kathiawar in Gujarat. The major tenet of Arya Samaj are written in Satyartha Prakash. He held that the Vedas contained all the knowledge imparted to man by God and are considered as infallible by him. Swami Dayananda Saraswati promoted the slogan of ‘Return to Vedas’ and ‘India is for Indians’. In the principles of Arya Samaj, God is considered as formless and omnipresent. He was opposed to idolatory and worship is not accepted. In Arya Samaj, brahmanical dominance, the untouchability, the caste system have been declared against the Vedas and were prohibited.
Swami Vivekananda founded the Ramakrishna Mission named after great Saint Swami Ramakrishna Paramhansa in 1897. The headquarter of Ramakrishna Mission was established at Belur Math in Calcutta. Swami Vivekananda was born in Calcutta in 1863. His original name was Narender Nath Dutt. In 1893, the World Religious Conference was organised in the American city Chicago. Vivekananda participated in this conference as representative of Hindu religion and shared his ideas with all American people.
Subhas Chandra Bose has called him the spiritual Father of Indian National Movement. Swami Vivekananda inspired the youth participate in the National Freedom Movement and also motivated them to dedicate themselves to the service of the mankind.
Satya Shodhak Samaj
Satya Shodhak Samaj was founded by Mahatma Jyotiba Phule on 24th September, 1873. Jyotiba Phule was born in 1827 at Pune, Maharashtra. In order to awaken the spirit of self-respect among the dalits (lower caste), he established Satya Shodhak Samaj. His thought is compiled in his famous books -Gulamgiri and Sarvajanik Satyadharm.
Prathna Samaj was founded by Dr Atmaram Panduranga at , In 1867 In 1869. Ramakrishna Gopal Bhandarkar ifitayan Chandrawarkar and Mahadev Govind Ranade, accepted the membership of Prarthana Samaj Mahadev Govind Ranade established Deccan Educational Society. He was appointed as the Deputy Judge of Poona by British Government In 1871 and later he became the judge of Bombay High Court in 1893. The principles of Prarthana Samaj, believed in formless nature of God and denounced the practice of idol worship.
The founder of Aligarh movement was Sir Syed Ahmed Khan. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan’s name is remarkable in creating awareness in Muslim society. He was born at Delhi in 1817. He established Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh (UP) in 1877. In 1920, it became Aligarh Muslim University. He taught the Muslims to stay away from stereotypes and proceeded with scientific knowledge. He initiated the Aligarh movement, which was the first Muslim social reform movement.
Muslim Reform Movements
The Muslim reform movements were divided into the following two categories :
(i) Wahabi Movement
This movement was started by Muhammad Abdul Wahab in Arab in 18th century. Syed Ahmed Barelvi promoted this in India. The two main objectives of this movement were the promotion of Islam religion and to remove the ill-practices from Muslim society.
(ii) Deoband Movement
The Deoband School of Islamic Theology was set-up in Deoband to promote studies in classical Islam and moral religious regeneration of the Muslims. This school did not support Western education and culture.
It is known as Kuka or Namdhari movement. It was a Sikh religious reform movement, which was started by Bhagat Jawaharmal in 1840. Its objective was to remove the restrictions on caste and inter-caste marriages and to prohibit intoxicants intake. Kukas revolted against the British under the leadership of Ram Singh Kuka in 1863. It has been believed that the movement was founded ‘Guru Balak Singh, but its original founder and inspiration was Ram Singh.
It was founded by Col. Olcott and Madame Blavatsky at New York (America) in 1875 It was established in India in 1882, by Annie Besant with its headquarters at Adyar (Madras). It believed in the principles of universal brotherhood, spirit of humanism and scientific temper. Annie Besant established Central Hindu College at Varanasi.
Ahmadiyya movement was started by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad in 1889. He start his work as a defender of Islam against the polemics of the Arya Samaj and therefore the Christian missionaries. They Opposed Jihad or sacred war against non-Muslims and stressed fraternal relations among all people. This movement was started in the Kadia, Gurdaspur district of Punjab.