United Nation Organisation (UNO) – Infotechstudy
What is UNO?
United nation organisation
After destructive outcomes of Second World War, the politicians of the world felt the need of an international organisation to save human beings. With this objective, the United Nations Organisation was established on 24th October, 1945 and this date is observed as United Nations Organisation Day every year. A conference was held between 15th April to 26th June, 1945 in San Francisco (USA), under Russia, Britain and USA to finalise the Charter of UNO.
Representatives of fifty countries signed the United Nations Charter on 26th June, (1945). Poland signed it later as its representative was not present at that time. Hence, 51 countries were initial signatories of UNO. India is one of its founding members. Presently, there are 193 members. Its first conference was started on 10th February, 1946 at West Minster Hall (London) which went on till 15th February, 1946. Later, its permanent secretariat was established at New York.
Headquarters of United Nation Organisation in Geneva (Switzerland)
Objectives/ Working of UNO
In Article 1 of the UN Charter, the objectives of UNO have been described. These are as follows
• Establishment of world peace and security.
• To prevent wars and take collective actions against aggressive nations
• To mange peacefully international disputes and problems all over world.
• To take against nations who violates international laws
• To encourage friendly relations among the countries.
• To find methods to protect human rights and fundamental liberties of human
• To make available services in the fields of society, economy and culture to different nations.
Main Principles of UNO
United Nations Organisation has some fundamental principles, which have to be followed by its members. These principles have been described under Article 2. These are as follows
• All the nations of the world are equal and sovereign.
• All the members will do their duties and responsibilities according to the-charter.
• All the’ members will settle their disputes peacefully and cordially. Member countries will not threat each other and they will not use power against each other
• Member countries will contribute in every activity of UNO and they will not help those countries which creates disturbance.
• UNO will not interfere in any domestic issue of any, member nation except in case of world peace and security.
What are the six Organ of UNO ?
In Article 7 of the UN Charter, the organs of UNO have been described. These are as follows
Representatives of all member countries sits, here. Each member country can send its 5 representatives, but they have only 1 voting right. Its annual meeting helds in September in the city of New York. Its emergency meeting can be called any time on the recommendation of Security Council.
Functions of General Assembly
Following are the functions of General Assembly
• To give membership to new countries.
• To pass the budget of organisation.
• To elect 10 non-permanent members of Security Council, 54 members of Economic and Social Council, 6 members of Trusteeship Council and judges of International Court of Justice.
• To work for human rights protection.
• To appoint Secretary-General on the advice of Security Council .
• To make international protocol.
• To make international laws.
This is the most significant organ of UNO, which has 15 members. United States of America, Britain, Russia, China and France are its permanent members. They have veto power in the council . By using this right, any permanent member can cancel the decision of the council.
Functions of Security Council
Following are the Functions of Security Council
• It maintains world peace and security arrangement.
• It can take military actions to prevent international struggles.
• It also passes the bill for disarmament.
• It gives membership to new nations.
• It also recommends the appointment of Secretary-General.
The objective of Trusteeship Council is to investigate activities of nations, who manages the governance of conserved states. It had 12 members out of which 4 were managerial countries (Australia, New Zealand, USA and Britain), three members were from Security Council (Russia, China and France) and 5 members were elected. Its work has been completed after independence of Palau.
Secretariat is an international organ of UNO. Its chief officer is Secretary-General, who is appointed for 5 years. He is eligible for second term. To assist the Secretary-General almost 10000 employees work from different countries.
Its headquarter is in New York (USA). The expenditure of secretariat is shared by all the member countries. It has eight departments and their heads are called secretary. The work of Secretary-General is to publish the report of activities of UNO and present it in annual assembly. Its main work is to inform about possible risk of peace and security arrangement to the Security Council.
Economic and Social Council
Its main objective is to give aid to backward nations for their social and economic development. There are 54 members in this council elected by General Assembly. Every member has tenure of 3 years. Two-third members retire every year. It holds atleast two meetings in a year. Special meeting can be summoned in case of necessity.
This council look after the social, economic, cultural, educational and health related works. This council also proposes international policies for human welfare. Many institutions execute its programmmes.
International Court of Justice
It is a court of UNO, which has 15 judges and they are appointed on the recommendation of Security Council. Tenure of judges is 9 years. The headquarter (INJ) in Hague (Netherland). Its main work is to give decisions regarding disputes between two or more than two nations. Besides this, it also suggests the methods to settle disputes.
Special Institutions and their functions in UNO ?
UNO has created many special institutions for the execution of economic, social and cultural works. Some of them are
International Labour Organisation (IL0)
Its headquarters is in Geneva (Switzerland). It has a total number of 150 members. Four members of each Its country participate in its meetings. administrative department keeps control on labour unions.
Functions of ILO
Following are the functions of ILO
• To make welfare policies for labourers in the world.
• To manage education and training of labourers.
• To evolve methods for remuneration, residence, health and upliftment of lives of labourers.
• To prevent child labour.
• To settle industrial disputes and problems of labourers.
World Health Organisation (WHO)
It was established on 7th April, 1948 with Geneva (Switzerland) as its headquarters. It has three organs: General Assembly, Administrative Board and Secretariat.
Functions of WHO
Following are the functions of WHO
• To make policies for the development of human health.
• To do scientific research in the field of science and to Prevent losses from natural disaster.
•To spread health awareness in less developed countries.
United Nation Education, Scientific and cultural Organisation (UNESCO)
UNESCO was established on 4th November, 1946, in London. Its headquarters is in Paris (France). It held one meeting every year, in which every country sends their one representative.
functions of UNESCO
The main functions of UNESCO are as follows
• To spread culture and education all over nations.
• To conserve cultural heritage.
• To do new research in the field of education and science.
• To organise cultural programmes in developing and underdeveloped countries.
• To provide rehabilitation to displaced people.
• To arrange cultural exchange among countries of the world.
• To send experts for the solution of special problems in different countries of the world and to establish contacts with scientists.
Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO)
This institution was established on 16th October, 1945. Its headquarters is in Rome, the capital of Italy. It has more than 180 members at present.
Functions of FAO
Following are the functions of FAO
• To prepare plan and implement policies to increase agricultural production in less developed countries
• To invent new technologies in agriculture
• To invent new varieties of efficient seeds.
• To do scientific research in agriculture.
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF)
It was etablished on 4th November, 1946, in New York. Initially. it had 20 members which is 190 at. present.
The main objective of this institution is to take care the health of all children of the world.
Function of UNICEF
following are the function of UNICEF
• To give economic aid to fulfill necessity of children of all countries of the world.
• To make special arrangement for mothers and infants in case of natural disaster.
• To establish child welfare and training centres in the hospitals and schools of different developing countries.
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
This institution was established to give temporary loans to those countries, which were facing the problem of Balance of Payment. It was established on 27th December, 1945. Its headquarters is in Washington (USA). Its treasury is managed by an administrative council.
What is World Bank ?
This was formed by merging Finance Corporation (1956), International Development Union (1960), Multilateral Investment Grant Tribunal (1966). Its headquarters is in Washington (USA). It provides loan to member countries for their economic development and restructuring.
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
It was established on 29th July, 1956, with its headquarters at Vienna (Austria). Its main work ‘is to promote atomic power for world peace and to ensure that it is not used for immoral purposes or strengthening military power.